In 19th century Germany there was a man who was both the local tax collector and caretaker of the dog pound. Since tax collecting was a dangerous job, he used the pound to make a new breed a dog that would protect him while collecting. His name, Karl Friedrich Louis Dobermann.
The Moscow Water Dog is a now-extinct breed of dog that was developed in the Soviet Union after WWII. They were bred to be water rescue dogs, but since they preferred biting drowning people to saving them, the breed was allowed to go extinct.