In the course of seeking cures for mental illness, some very bizarre methods have been tried. In 1650 Athanasius Kircher (a Jesuit scholar) invented a musical instrument to cure melancholy. The instrument was called a “katzenklavier” and it consisted of a line of cats fixed in place with their tails sticking out underneath a keyboard. When they keys were struck the cats would meow in pain. The concept never caught on.


In the course of seeking cures for mental illness, some very bizarre methods have been tried. In 1650 Athanasius Kircher (a Jesuit scholar) invented a musical instrument to cure melancholy. The instrument was called a “katzenklavier” and it consisted of a line of cats fixed in place with their tails sticking out underneath a keyboard. When they keys were struck the cats would meow in pain. The concept never caught on.

Have you ever had a dream in which you wake up and go about your daily routine – only to discover that you are actually still asleep? This can be incredibly frustrating as you realize you need to re-do everything you have already done (in the dream). It is extremely realistic and most people experience it. This event is called a “false awakening” or a “dream within a dream”. It is even possible to have multiple cases of false awakenings in one dream. This is used to good effect (though perhaps it is a bit cliched now) in movies.

Have you ever had a dream in which you wake up and go about your daily routine – only to discover that you are actually still asleep? This can be incredibly frustrating as you realize you need to re-do everything you have already done (in the dream). It is extremely realistic and most people experience it. This event is called a “false awakening” or a “dream within a dream”. It is even possible to have multiple cases of false awakenings in one dream. This is used to good effect (though perhaps it is a bit cliched now) in movies.

Have you ever noticed that when you have a bowl of nuts, the bigger ones make their way to the top? This event actually has a scientific name: the Brazil Nut Effect. The term refers to the phenomenon in which the largest particles end up on the surface when a granular material containing a mixture of objects of different sizes is shaken.

Have you ever noticed that when you have a bowl of nuts, the bigger ones make their way to the top? This event actually has a scientific name: the Brazil Nut Effect. The term refers to the phenomenon in which the largest particles end up on the surface when a granular material containing a mixture of objects of different sizes is shaken.