When ancient romans had something stolen from them, they would “transfer” ownership of their stolen items to a deity, so as to make the god responsible for punishing the thief.
Before toilet paper, Ancient Romans used a sponge on the end of a long stick that was shared by everyone in the community. When not in use, the stick stayed in a bucket of heavily salted seawater in the communal bathroom.
Roman soldiers were given one pound of meat daily. For an army 120 sheep were killed a day just for the meat ration. Or 60 hogs. Huge flocks of livestock were herded and grazing alongside an army. Roman soldiers were a mule more than anything else. They carried very heavy gear, on bad roads.
“Decimation” means “removal of a tenth” in Latin, and refers to a Roman practice in which military commanders punished units for capital offenses by having soldiers execute 1 in 10 of their comrades.
During the Punic Wars, the Romans realized they had no clue how to build ships. They decided to rent row boats, run aground a Carthaginian ship, and plagiarize the designs. The entire first fleet of their new Navy was based off this ship, but learning to row proved more challenging.
Julius Caesar would personally conduct espionage on his enemies. Once, he even dressed up as a Gaul and snuck behind enemy lines. When his soldiers failed to sneak him back, he boarded a Gaul ship blockading the Romans and sailed back into Roman territory without anyone noticing.
Salt was so precious in ancient Rome, it made up a portion of a soldier’s pay, which is where we get the word salary from, (from the Latin for salt, sal).
Ancient Romans recycled their pee. They peed in pots and emptied them in a barrel which they left on the street when filled. A public service would pick it up to turn the pee into ammonia which they used as bleach, mouthwash and more.
Despite ancient Roman bridges being the first large and lasting bridges ever built, many are still used despite being around 2,000 years old.