George Orwell’s use of 2+2=5…

George Orwell’s use of 2+2=5 as a catchphrase of the dystopian government in his book 1984 is based on Joseph Stalin’s use of that equation in propaganda. Soviet posters declared “2 + 2 plus the enthusiasm of the workers = 5” long before Orwell wrote his novel. The USSR reached the goals of that Five Year Plan in four years, therefore meaning that the “enthusiasm of the workers” did five years worth of work in four years.

Torches of Freedom

It used to be improper for women to smoke, but a single PR stunt changed all that. In 1929, women were hired to light up while marching in a parade, calling the cigarettes “Torches of Freedom.” So smoking became a symbol of equal rights, and sales skyrocketed.

The stunt was pulled by Edward Bernays (nephew of Sigmund Freud), who is known as the godfather of Public Relations (he even coined that term, because his original word ‘Propaganda’ was getting a bad rap)
Bernays is also credited with making bacon & eggs into breakfast foods, convincing the public that fluoridated tap water was safe, and helping the CIA/United Fruit Company get away with overthrowing the Guatemalan government (which was democratically-elected).