North Dakota’s Law Promotes Local Ownership of Pharmacies

North Dakota has effectively eliminated corporate chain pharmacies by implementing a law that mandates pharmacies to be owned by licensed pharmacists. This means that corporations owning pharmacies must be majority-owned by licensed pharmacists.

It is worth noting that this law was enacted in 1963 as a response to concerns about the unethical practices of chain pharmacies, which were accused of prioritizing profits over patient care. The law was seen as a way to promote local ownership and ensure that pharmacists had more control over their businesses.

The North Dakota law has also been a point of interest for policymakers and healthcare experts in other states, with some suggesting that similar regulations could help address issues related to prescription drug prices and access to care. However, critics argue that such regulations limit competition and may result in higher prices for consumers.

Despite the controversy surrounding the law, North Dakota remains the only state in the US with this requirement, and many of its residents value the local ownership and community-focused approach to healthcare that it promotes.

The Self-Healing Power of Roman Concrete

Roman engineers created structures that have withstood the test of time thanks to the use of lime clasts in their concrete. Unlike modern concrete, which often deteriorates within a few decades, Roman concrete exhibits remarkable durability due to its self-healing properties from lime clasts. As a result, ancient wonders like the Pantheon and aqueducts still stand today, after more than two thousand years.

In fact, recent studies have shed light on the chemical reaction that makes Roman concrete so resilient. When seawater seeps into the concrete, it reacts with the lime and volcanic ash mixture, creating a crystalline substance that actually reinforces the concrete. This explains why many ancient Roman structures built near the sea, such as the Port of Ostia, have remained intact for centuries despite the constant onslaught of saltwater.

Furthermore, Roman concrete wasn’t just strong and durable, it was also more sustainable than modern concrete. The Romans made their concrete by mixing locally sourced materials like volcanic ash, lime, and stones, reducing transportation costs and carbon emissions. In contrast, modern concrete often requires large amounts of energy to produce and transport, contributing to climate change.

Overall, Roman concrete was a marvel of ancient engineering that continues to impress and inspire us today.

Raccoon Invasion: The Unintended Consequences of Pet Imports in Japan

In 1977, the airing of an anime based on the book Rascal in Japan led to the importation of thousands of North American raccoons as pets, which were eventually released into the wild and have since become an invasive species in the country.

As a result of the raccoon population explosion in Japan, government officials have implemented various measures to control their numbers, including trapping and sterilization programs. However, the raccoons continue to pose a threat to native flora and fauna and have caused damage to agricultural crops and residential property.

Interestingly, in recent years, some Japanese citizens have become fond of the raccoons and have even set up cafes where patrons can interact with them. However, these cafes have faced criticism from animal welfare advocates who argue that keeping wild animals in captivity for entertainment purposes is unethical.

Overall, the raccoon invasion in Japan serves as a cautionary tale about the unintended consequences of introducing non-native species to new environments.

Mississippian World Tree: A Cosmological Concept Similar to Norse Mythology

Similar to Norse mythology, the Mississippian Native Americans held a cosmological belief system that involved a World Tree.

Their World Tree was a central element of their belief system, and it was believed to be a conduit between the upper and lower worlds. The tree was considered to be the axis of the world, and its roots were believed to connect the earthly plane to the underworld, while its branches extended to the heavens.

Interestingly, the Mississippian World Tree was often depicted with a serpent coiled around its trunk, which is a motif found in many other world mythologies. This serpent symbolized the cycle of death and rebirth, which was an important aspect of the Mississippian worldview.

Castaway Huts: Essential Survival Aid on Isolated Islands

Governments deliberately place castaway huts or depots on isolated islands to provide stranded people with essential supplies and tools. During the 19th and 20th centuries, the New Zealand government constructed the majority of these huts.

Interestingly, the huts were designed to withstand harsh weather conditions, and they were built with materials that could withstand strong winds, heavy rain, and potential earthquakes. Additionally, many of the castaway huts in New Zealand were equipped with radios, which allowed stranded people to contact rescue services and receive help.

DARPA’s Study on Coffee Spillage and Human Biomechanics

The US Department of Defense invested $170,000 in a study to investigate the causes of coffee spillage while walking. The findings revealed that any low-viscosity liquid could spill when exposed to human biomechanics, not just coffee.

The study was part of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency’s (DARPA) quest to understand human movement and to develop advanced military equipment that can be operated by troops on the move. The researchers used high-speed cameras and motion-capture technology to analyze the mechanics of spilling liquids while walking.

Interestingly, the research also found that a person’s gait and stride length play a significant role in spillage. DARPA used this information to develop better-designed military uniforms and gear, reducing the risk of spills and the need for cleaning up or leaving a trail.

Overall, while the study’s findings may seem trivial, it highlights how scientific research can have unexpected and practical applications that benefit society beyond their original scope.

Heinrich Hertz’s Discovery of Radio Waves and Legacy

Heinrich Hertz, the German physicist, is known for discovering electromagnetic waves, which we now know as radio waves, in 1887. However, when asked about the practical applications of his discovery, he replied, “Nothing, I guess.” He was more interested in studying the fundamental properties of electricity and magnetism.

Hertz died at the young age of 36 due to an infection, shortly before the first successful demonstration of radio communication by Guglielmo Marconi in 1895. Marconi used Hertz’s work on electromagnetic waves to develop the first practical system of wireless telegraphy.

Hertz’s discovery of radio waves and his experiments on electromagnetic radiation paved the way for numerous technological advancements, including the development of radio, television, radar, and wireless communication. His work also laid the foundation for the development of quantum mechanics, which is one of the most important theories in modern physics.

The Age Perception Shift: Feeling Younger Than We Are

As per the concept of “Subjective Age,” most children and adolescents perceive themselves as older than their actual age, however, this flips around the age of 25, and by 30, around 70% of people feel younger than their chronological age, with the gap between the two increasing with time.

Interestingly, research has shown that feeling younger than your actual age has been linked to various health benefits, including a lower risk of hospitalization and mortality, improved mental health, and a higher likelihood of engaging in healthy behaviors such as exercise and eating well, emphasizing the importance of maintaining a positive and youthful mindset as we age.

Jack Kirby: From Captain America to Military Scout

During WWII, Jack Kirby, co-creator of Captain America, was drafted into the U.S. Army and assigned to land at Omaha Beach in Normandy. Because of his background as a comics artist, Kirby’s artistic skills proved to be valuable to the military. He was tasked with the dangerous duty of advancing into towns to draw reconnaissance maps and pictures as a scout.

It’s interesting to note that Kirby’s time in the military influenced his work as a comic book artist. His experiences during the war inspired him to create characters that reflected the heroism and sacrifice of soldiers, including Sgt. Fury and the Howling Commandos and The Losers. Kirby’s contributions to the world of comics and his service to his country will always be remembered.

The Lawspeaker: Sweden’s Keeper of the Law a Thousand Years Ago

Sweden had a Lawspeaker a millennium ago who was tasked with memorizing EVERY law. Known as “Lagman” in Swedish, this official was responsible for reciting the law to the people during public assemblies.

Interestingly, the role of the Lawspeaker was not restricted to Sweden alone. This tradition was also followed in other Scandinavian countries such as Denmark and Norway. The Lawspeaker’s role was significant in maintaining law and order in the Viking Age and medieval times, and their authority extended beyond legal matters, encompassing religious and social issues as well. They were held in high regard and were often considered to be the wisest and most respected members of society. In fact, the Lawspeaker’s position was so important that they were even mentioned in some of the Norse sagas.