The first Soviet probe sent…

The first Soviet probe sent to Mars’ moon Phobos failed due to user error. While the probe was still on its way to Mars, an impatient technician who didn’t want to wait for his code to be proofread unintentionally sent a command to the probe to shut down and there was no way to turn it back on.

After the incident, an investigation was immediately ordered to determine who was responsible for the failure. Nevertheless, disciplinary action was postponed until the completion of the Phobos 2 mission. This was to prevent the demoralization of the Phobos 2 team. Any penalization of the Phobos 1 team would create anxiety among the Phobos 2 team and reduce the chances of mission success.
This postponement of punitive measures was urged by IKI director Roald Sagdeev. He quoted the former secret service chief under Stalin, Lavrenti Beria, who said “Let’s make them work for now. We can shoot them all later.”

Animals and us

Frans de Waal is a Dutch biologist, who is studying primates. France tries to understand the origin of certain human behavior and morals. And for better understanding, he took a closer look into the animal world. In 70’s, when he decided to do more research, all the studies about primate and animal behaviour in general, were based on aggression and violence theory, It was thought, that aggression was a prime instinct, But, Frans discovered, that even though chimpanzes act agressively, they reconcile after a fight. Frans decided to focus on a socially positive tendencies and came to a conclusion,that animals are capable of empathy, sharing and doing favors for each other. Furthermore, they are all for fairness and equality.

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